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A number of low-cost powered USB hubs are known to have caused problems. Members of the Raspberry Pi forums have reported low power or no power at all in some cases. The following is a list of specific Powered USB Hubs which appear to be fault-free.
Please note that these do not take into account powering the Raspberry Pi from the hub, in addition to its peripherals. If you use a powered hub and the Raspberry Pi PSU together consider powering them from the same power bar with switch, so you can turn them on simultaneously., especially if the HUB tries to feed the Raspberry Pi through their interconnect cable, due to the 100 mA limiting fuse in the Raspberry Pi, the Raspberry Pi will be partially powered which may cause problems (unwanted writes to the SD card). Contents. Raspberry Pi Specific Hubs Recently, two new hubs have been designed and manufactured specifically for the Raspberry Pi. Guaranteed to provide no back power to the unit.
These are. from The Pi Hut. One of the 4 USB ports supplies the Raspberry Pi with dedicated full 1 A power over a standard USB A to micro B cable. (Order cable separately.) See Raspberry Pi foundation September 9, 2013 news:. This new USB hub was specifically designed to integrate with the Raspberry Pi Zero.
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from MSL Digital Solutions Working USB Hubs. USB hub Raspberry Pi power hookup schematic. On the left side a USB A to micro B cable supplies power from the hub to the Raspberry Pi. The thick red and gray overlays indicate the +5 V and ground sides of the power circuit from hub power adapter to Raspberry Pi micro B power port.
The thick red branch terminating at the hub diode emphasizes its role in preventing back-powering of the Raspberry Pi through the hub mini B port. On the right side a USB A to mini B cable provides the data path between the Raspberry Pi host and hub. The dashed lines indicate the differential signal path connecting pins 2 and 3 of the USB A and mini B ports.
A powered USB hub is required to attach high power USB devices to the Raspberry Pi. In this case it may be desirable to power the Raspberry Pi from the USB hub instead of in the usual manner from a separate power supply. This power hookup requires two USB cables between Hub and Raspberry Pi, which are both shown on the power hookup schematic. The cable on the left side supplies power and that on the right is a standard USB cable that would be required to connect the Raspberry Pi to any USB hub or other USB device. The schematic also shows two important features of the USB hub internal power wiring that are required to correctly power the Raspberry Pi. First, the hub coaxial power input directly connects to the USB A output ports.
This allows the Raspberry Pi to skip the usual process of asking the hub to switch it from a 100 mA low power to a 500 mA high power device and to exceed even this high power limit so that it can meet its typical power requirements of 700 mA or more. Second, the hub diode prevents back-powering, that is, current cannot flow in the reverse direction from the hub coaxial power connector back out to the micro B input port and into the Raspberry Pi. USB hub power circuitry tests This section describes two tests that will verify that a USB hub has the correct power circuitry. Equipment In addition to the USB hub, Raspberry Pi, and high and low power load resistors, these tests require a digital voltmeter and 3 patch cords, one of each which terminates on one end with a coaxial power plug, a USB A plug, and a mini B plug. It's possible to power all tests from a coaxial jack connected to the hub power adaptor coaxial plug, but it will be more convenient to use a standard bench power supply with voltage readout and adjustable current limit. Output power test. USB hub output power test schematic.
This test verifies that the USB hub will supply sufficient power to a Raspberry Pi. The schematic shows 5 V power supplying the USB hub coaxial power connector, a 5 Ω load resistor connected across one of the USB hub type A outputs, a maximum drop of around 0.25 V in the USB hub internal power circuitry, and an output voltage of at least 4.75 V across the load resistor.
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The output power test has two parts, which are both shown on the output power test schematic. The setups for both parts require a 5 Ω load on a hub output port, which simulates a 1 A current drawn by a Raspberry Pi and perhaps some attached peripherals. A 10 W rated load resistor would provide a safe margin over the 5 W power it must dissipate. The setups differ in how the 5 V power is provided to the hub's coaxial power input.
The first and simpler setup powers the hub directly from the hub power adaptor and verifies that in its normal operating configuration the hub will provide sufficient power. As shown on the schematic there must be at least 4.75 V across the 5 Ω load resistor, which is the minimum voltage required to power the Raspberry Pi. The second setup also powers the hub through the coaxial input, put provides electrical access to the +5 V and ground conductors of the coaxial power plug. This is most easily accomplished with a bench power supply and coaxial power plug patch cord. A bench power supply will provide digital readout of both voltage and current, for which a 1 A reading guarantees that the required test current is properly flowing through the 5 Ω load resistor. Measure the ground leg voltage drop between the barrel patch cord wire of the coaxial power plug and the pin 4 wire of the type A output plug and the +5 V leg drop between the central wire of the coaxial plug and the pin 1 with of the output plug.
Under the 1 A test conditions both of these legs should see a voltage drop of the order of 100 mV and their sum should be less than about 250 mV as is indicated on the schematic. Double-check that this sum plus the drop across the 5 Ω resistor (measured between pin 1 and 4 patch cord wires of the type A output plug) equals the bench power supply voltage.
The comparable 100 mV drops on both ground and +5V legs confirms that the hub internal power wiring directly connects the power supply to the USB output ports. Input diode test. USB hub input diode test schematic. This test verifies that the unpowered USB hub can draw power through an input port power diode. The diode insures that the powered USB hub will not back-power a Raspberry Pi. The schematic shows 5 V power supplying the USB hub mini B input, a 50 Ω load resistor connected across one of the USB hub type A outputs, and a 0.4 V drop across USB hub internal power diode. Patch cord the test circuit as shown on the input diode test schematic.
This test simulates the hub in bus-powered mode. The rational for selecting a 50 Ω load resistor is that it will draw a nominal 100 mA current, which corresponds to 1 load unit in the USB 2.0 specification and equals the maximum power available to a device on a bus-powered hub. The specification also requires that such low-power devices have a minimum operating voltage of 4.4 V, which means that even with the 0.4 V diode drop the hub will supply sufficient voltage. The diode voltage drop can be measured between the pin 1 patch cord wire of the mini B input plug and the pin 1 wire of the type A output plug or calculated as the difference between voltages measured across pin 1 and 5 wires of the input plug and pin 1 and 4 wires of the output plug.
The presence of the 0.4 V drop between hub input and output is strong evidence that the USB hub circuitry includes a diode that prevents back-powering the Raspberry Pi. A setup very similar to the output power test can check for reverse leakage current and further strengthen the evidence that the hub internal circuitry includes a diode at the position indicated in the test schematic. As shown on the output power test schematic power the hub through its coaxial power input and optionally put the 1 unit power load resistor on an output port. First verify that the voltage across the pin 1 and 5 patch cord wires of the mini B input plug is very nearly 5 V. This is consistent with a high voltmeter impedance limiting both the reverse leakage current and reverse bias voltage to a very small values. Next add a 100 kΩ resistor across the pin 1 and 5 wires of the mini B input plug and again measure the voltage.
Assuming the voltage is now in the 100 mV range, the voltage drop across the diode is very nearly 5 V and Ohm's law gives the current through the resistor in the 1 µA range. This is the diode leakage current at a 5 V reverse bias. If necessary adjust the mini B input plug load resistance to get a voltage drop across this resistor in the 100 mV range and calculate the leakage current accordingly. Example: Plugable 7 Port USB Hub USB2-HUB-AG7 The Plugable 7 Port USB Hub model USB2-HUB-AG7 passes both the above power circuitry tests and is suitable for powering the Raspberry Pi. Here are the measurements:.
Output power test. Adapter power Voltage drop 5 Ω load: 4.91 V (982 mA load current). Power loop voltages (952 mA load current) Supply: 5.00 V +5 V leg: 133 mV 5 Ω load: 4.76 V Ground leg: 115 mV. Input diode test. Forward bias Diode voltage drop: 0.37 V (93 mA forward current). Reverse bias Diode leakage current: 1.47 µA (5 V reverse bias and 147 mV drop across 100 kΩ reverse bias load) References.